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Hello everyone Today well be doing a topic on calories in
calorie out Which will probably be one of the most important
videos I ever do Reason being is because it is going to be
the foundations for the diet that I call, that known as if it fits your macros, flexible
dieting which is something I follow Now to start this off some science for
you science *** Thermodynamics the first and second law
First law states that energy can be changed from one form to another but it cannot be
created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in the universe remains
constant, merely chaning from one form to another.
So basically calories in calories out in an enclosed energy system
The human body is an enclosed energy system The second law of thermodynamics states that
in all energy exchanges, portions of energy will be lost as heat.
and this relates to the thermic effect of food
So when you eat food, in order to extract the energy from the food small portions of
the energy will be lost as heat So those two things will be the basis of calories
in calories out So you cannot eat a certain amount of calories
and then have a portion of those calories disappear into thin air
Because we are enclosed energy systems and we abide by the first and second laws. Simple
Now, how do you get food, by eating obviously. So what do we eat, we eat protein carbs fat
and alcohol, these things have energy. Protein has 4 calories a gram. Carbs 4 calories
a gram. Fat 9 calories a gram and alcohol 7 calories a gram. Pretty obvious.
So obviously in a day well eat a certain number. 2000, 3000, 5000 calories from eating foods
that contain again protein fat carbs and alcohol, simple.
Now were does the energy go, well there's energy stores
Carbohydrates have liver its about 70 grams something like that, to my knowledge that
we can store glycogen. Muscle glycogen which is anywhere from say
600 to 900 grams of glycogen and small amounts of that in blood glucose.
So fat is triacylglycerol's in adipose tissue and there pretty much unlimited stores
And then you have protein, which is again for a short period of time you can actually
store amino acids in blood plasma and as skeletal muscle.
The skeletal muscle is a bit iffy it's not exactly protein source that it's coming out
of but we all know that you can chew up muscle tissue and use as energy.
And just a note alcohol has no stores and is 100% metabolized by the body.
Now for something very important which I'll go into a little bit more details, in calories
out. So how do we use energy. Well first up basal
metabolic rate So people are familiar with this its breathing,
heart pumping blood, kidneys. The regulation of human body.
So all our organ functions and things like that
Then we have, the thermic effect of exercise It's pretty much daily activity levels so
what we do on a daily basis walking sitting standing typing driving etc
It's all voluntary movement. So things that we have control over
And then you have NEAT no exercise activity thermogenesis. This is all our involuntary
movement. So fidgeting twitching Umm some people bump their knees up and down,
things like that These small ridged movements that people do
without realizing actually do use portions of energy
Then you have thermic effect of food. So again small portions of energy are used
when extracting the calories from protein fats and carbs.
A lot of people use the argument that we should have more protein because it has a higher
thermic effect of food. It does but it's a *** all difference, not
really that important. Its not something you should worry about
So when you combined all these numbers together you get something called total daily energy
expenditure and that's going to be a specific number of how much calories you're you are
using that day. Now what influences the total daily energy
expenditure? So what is going to influence and differentiate
from each person how much energy we use? So first thing body weight. So the heavier
you are, quite obvious scale wise it makes sense that we are going to use more energy.
Basal metabolic rate, more blood being pumped through the heart
Theres more oxygen been needed to be taken up etc
All these things are going to increase basal metabolic rate due to weight just in terms
of proportions. Then you have the thermic effect of exercise,
again if you're 100kg vs 50kg well obviously you need more energy to move 100kg up and
down some stairs so you are going to have a larger a large thermic effect of excise.
And again similar to non-thermic exercise thermogenesis, the twitching etc the bigger
you are you're going to use more energy doing so.
Thermic effect of food not really Then you have body composition. So someone
that is 100kg 8% body fat is going to have more muscle
Muscle is more metabolically active than fat. So our basal metabolic rate and our homeostasis
of the muscle is going to be larger, so body composition.
Then you have everyone's activity level. So someone that's sedentary sitting on their
coach all day or has a desk job is not going to use as much energy as a tradie for example.
Then you have genetics. What do I mean by genetics is some people naturally have a higher
thyroid hormone level so basically their BMR and even to some degree the NEAT is going
ot be lower than with someone with naturally lower levels of thyroid function
So another difference in genetics the process in which we extract energy from molecules,
such as glucose for example And what I mean by that is, when glucose has
to go through glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain the maximum yield
of ATP which is energy is 38 units. Now, that isn't always the case so depending
on people's genetics some are actually really efficient so they'll get the total 38 and
some people are less efficient and they won't get 38
So they might get 20 for example So that also relates to someone being able
to get 5000 calories but really only getting 3000 calories worth of energy
Vs someone that is very metabolically efficient which gets the total 38 ATP out of each glucose.
So that's also another factor in genetics Then we have sleep, so someone that sleeps
10 hours a day vs someone that sleeps 5 hours a day. That's a 5 hour sleep window difference
So in those 5 hours that person is going to spend more time with thermic effect of exercise
aren't they because they are going to be more physically active?
They have 5 hours extra, so that's quite obvious Then you have a big one that's a little bit
confusing, drugs So there are drugs for example that we can
take T3 clenbuterol these sort of things that increase BMR, NEAT
So when you're taking the clen and your hands are shaking like that you are using more energy
Then you have the thermic effect of exercise as well you're more manic and you're more
active and you have energy. So you want to more around more. Without you
realizing you're using more energy All drugs are going to basically affect any
of these four things So basically the point of this is that it
does not matter who you are or what you're still going to have to abide by the laws of
physics, thermodynamics laws 1 and 2 In turn, calories in calories out
I also want to note that every single diet that you will see on the internet or any diet
that anyone is going to give you Keto diet, low carb, high carb, low protein,
high protein, high fat whatever the *** it is its either going to either directly or
indirectly effect calories in or calories out
Keto diet, if you're on keto diet, paleo diet whatever the *** it is and you're cutting
out a whole array of foods and even a whole macronutrient carbohydrates
Well its very obvious that you're not consuming as much food. So its petty obvious that you're
losing weight It's not because there's magic in not eating
carbs it's because your energy balance in pushed in the direction that you will lose
weight So how do we become in control of this? Well
firstly you have to find your maintenance calories
So I've linked in the description a calculator that everyone can use.
Use it spit out a number The number is not too important at this point
if it's off by 200 calories or so it's not going to matter in the long run
You'll have to figure it out the hard way for the first time so say its 2,500 calories
and you're not losing weight and you're not putting on weight then you have hit it bingo
If you're putting on weight well then you know it's a bit less than 2,500 calories so
just reduce it and that's your caloric maintenance You'll figure it out eventually by trial and
error Weight gain, so how do we put on weight? Well
if our caloric maintenance is 2,500 calories and we eat 3,000 calories a day were in a
caloric surplus Our energy balance is pushed in an energy
surplus So naturally you are going to put on weight,
500 calories has to somewhere. So where is it gonna go? In the calorie stores
that I described earlier Weight loss, if you're eating 2,000 calories
and your maintenance is 2,500 calories the energy has to come from somewhere
We can't burn energy from thin air, it's not *** magic its physics
The energy gonna come from somewhere, where? From the calorie stores that I described earlier
So that's all you have to do Anytime you're losing weight you're in a deficit
Anytime you're putting on weight you're in a caloric surplus whether you like it or not,
whether you want to believe it or not. Its physics
So where are the calories being stored and where are they being oxidized from? This is
something determined by calories partitioning known as the p-ratio
This will be the topic of my next video that you guys need to check out
So if you did like this video please like it share it subscribe whatever you have to
do Thanks guys