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All About Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period
This high blood sugar produces the symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger
Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications
Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
Serious long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce enough insulin
This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes"
The cause is unknown.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly
As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop
This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes"
The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level.
Prevention and treatment involves a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco, and being a normal body weight
Blood pressure control and proper foot care are also important for people with the disease
Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections
Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin
Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is an effective measure in those with type 2 DM
Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
Globally, as of 2013, an estimated 382 million people have diabetes worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90% of the cases
This is equal to 8.3% of the adults population, with equal rates in both women and men
Worldwide in 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in 1.5 to 5.1 million deaths per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death
Diabetes overall at least doubles the risk of death
The number of people with diabetes is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035
The economic costs of diabetes globally was estimated in 2013 at $548 billion and in the United States in 2012 $245 billion.