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Dr. Hibberd>> Now some hot issues
relating to changing phenotype, and I'm sure
you've all seen these pictures before.
This is from Jeff Gordon's group again.
The idea here being that conventionally raised mice,
if you take their stool and transplant it into germ-free
adult recipients versus an obese mice,
and you do the same thing, measuring total body fat,
just 14 days later, here are the data.
Those from the lean had much lower body fat
versus from the obese.
These germ-free recipients had much higher body fat.
Pretty concerning, given that they were all on similar chow
and had similar initial body weight and body fat.
And then another problem with doing a talk in this area
is you'd better pay attention as to what's been published
today or a couple days ago.
So these are data brand new published on Friday,
again from Jeff Gordon's lab,
and what he did here was really cool.
Took twins, these are human twins,
one of the pair was lean and the other was obese.
The sample size of the twins was 4,
but when you study putting these human donors lean and obese into
gnotobiotic mice and follow them out for about five weeks,
I think you can see that these lean donor stool
meant the change in body fat mass was less
than those coming from the obese twins.
Who's in control here?
It's really raising some interesting questions.
Then this seems even scarier, that if you cohouse lean and
obese mice in the same cage, these are the obese mice,
here what we have is the phenotype changing from before
they're cohoused to after being cohoused,
and these red things are all the lean stuff coming in.
So guess what, you cohouse lean and obese animals,
their microbiomes change.
I wonder what's happening in our houses.
And then this final slide shows the effect
of low saturated fat, high fiber,
basically good diets, versus lousy diets,
high saturated fat and low fruits and vegetables.
And if you take obese mice and give them this high fat diet,
they end up with increase in body mass.
But if‚ I'm sorry, this is the low fat.
They still end up with an increase in body mass,
all the other groups don't.
But if you give all of these mice either their obese
phenotypes or lean phenotypes cohoused lean and obese,
this bad diet, all of their body weights change.
So this raises some serious questions about how obesity is
being—is occurring, as a result of the microbial communities.